Current research of geometric morphometrics of fly wing size and venation was performed in 2012 on species of Calliphoridae (Blow-Flies).
Statistical analysis of variations of wing length and vein lengths showed that species differentiation was possible.(Vazquez,M.2012).
Recently the author retrieved two five specimen series of the common North American Blowfly(Collophora vacina) collected in 2002. The wings were measured and variations of the North American sample showed not specific differences,but individual differences. This study summarily reverses the results of the Venezuelan study.
The author’s in the 2012 paper saw their research helping the science of forensic entomology.It may be added that the species they used have been challenged by other researchers as of being different families.
Vazquez,M. Geometric wing morphometrics of the Chrysomya albiceps and C. megacephola identification (Diptera:Calliphoridae).Rev.Biol.Trop.2012,Sep:60(31):1249-58.
The house fly (Muscidae ) is one species of 2000 known species of Muscidae. The family has a history of wide variability. The third fly (of course)is Musca domesticus. The second fly is more difficult to discern but is Stomoxys calcitrans(stable fly), the first fly (notice wasp-like legs)is Hebecnema vespertine. (all found in the Northeast U.S.A.).
The houseflies tend to vary a lot. There are unknown specimens at the University of Iowa Entomology website. Also Hebecnema vespertinae was recorded caught by them on a barn wall in 50 degree weather in upstate New York during 2005.
These specimens were caught in one sweep about 1998 in an old field bordering a forest and marshland.
Is this a new hypervolume as described by George Evelyn Hutchinson in his book Treatise on Limnology and Oceanography?It is if you factor in that houseflies have lived with us throughout our own evolution. Possibly a sign, that man’s settlements does increase diversity but in a more insular way providing the phylogenetic tree with more bushy branches rather that straight lines of Families. We see more species and then Families or Classes evolving. A trimming of the tree. Is this healthy?If long-term homeostasis occurs. Yes. But it definitely should be studied as a new hypervolume or super-niche where new species evolve in our modern times.
Nephrotoma ferruginea with MCU
Tipula perritti with no MCU
While I was heading a forum on MSN community about Crane-flies (Tipulidae) with permission from colleagues in my field (invertebrate taxonomy). I noticed that there was a barrage of questions regarding a missing wing vein in many specimens of the first genus discovered. The wing vein was the MCU. In Tipula ferruginea(the very first Crane-Fly described). It was present. Below is a rendition of the MCU.It connects a interiorally shaped box of cross veins to the first cubital vein (a vein that helps form the Anal cells).
__________________/ RS vein____
_____________________Cubital vein Key: // vein connects upward,///vein descends downward
In a Holarctic or subarctic species (We are in temperate New York) the MCU is missing completely, although originally described in 1920 has having an MCU closely off the central medial box.Thus there are only two anal cells in the Holarctic species.(see photos).
The question was why is this variation so predominate in the genus Tipula? My answer would be they are regressed or vestigial genes. The transient Holarctic species (Tipula perretti) was inbred. Its populations were stuck in a small gene pool when it left the subarctic and migrated to New York.In fact the early taxonomists had changed the name of one Crane-fly to Nephrotoma ferruginea but left Tipula perrotti on its own possibly anticipating the extinction of the genus Tipula.
Maybe there was global warming back then too.
Graph of e-cigarretes/cigarretes smoked weekly day 1.